What's the "Statamic 3" way of handling modular, componentized pages?

I used Statamic 1 back in the day, and am considering coming back to it. If I wanted to make a modular page of markdown prose and components (say a news article with a bunch of infographic, slider modules, pull quotes, video modules etc randomly interspersed throughout the prose), what's the "right approach" to doing that today?

In the past, I would create partials for said modules, then insert the partials in my Markdown. The downside is that's a relatively manual approach to the problem, and not very CMS-y.

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